Post-war Aftermath View comments     
April 2003 Independent article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       Kurdish leaders raise concerns that the US is abandoning plans to introduce democracy in Iraq after the war.           
April 2003 Daily Telegraph article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 6 
       The occupying US forces fail to prevent the looting of the Iraqi national museum, as well as numerous schools, universities, hospitals, Baghdad's communications centre, nuclear materials etc. The only ministry building saved from looting and plundering by the US forces is the ministry of oil.           
June 2003 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 
       The World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNICEF are fighting a growing number of cases of water-borne diseases as a result of continuing lack of clean drinking water and adequate sewage facilities in Iraq.           
June 2003 Washington Post article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       Occupation forces move to halt elections throughout Iraq (preferring to install their own handpicked mayors and administrators).           
September 21, 2003 Washington Post article ( cached ) See also: 1 
       The US institutes wide-ranging free-market reforms in Iraq which allow full foreign ownership in every sector except oil (the oil remaining under US control).           
October 2003 USA Today article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       The US seeks help from the UN in Iraq, however refuses to make the main concessions demanded by other countries - ceding control in Iraq, and moving quicker towards handing power in Iraq over to the Iraqis.           
Oct 2003 Guardian article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       The occupation authority makes preparations to dismantle the food distribution system which under Saddam gave free rations of flour, rice, cooking oil and other staples to every Iraqi.

Described by the UN as the world's most efficient food network, the system still keeps Iraqis from going hungry. But the US civilian administrator of Iraq, Paul Bremer, views it as a dangerous socialist anachronism. The coalition provisional authority (CPA) is planning to abolish it in January, despite warnings from its own technical experts that this could lead to hunger and riots.
Oct 2003 Christian Aid report ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 6 
       Christian Aid reports that $4 billion of a total of $5 billion in oil revenues and other funds from Iraq have 'disappeared' in bank accounts in the hands of the US-led occupation authority.           
Dec 2003  See also: 1 
       America objects to the idea of holding elections in Iraq, using as basis the absence of a census and list of voters. However the Iraqis point out the UN food for oil program's food distribution lists provide an adequate list, and when the Iraqis come up with a plan for a census the Americans veto the idea. America also site the lack of a constitution as an excuse, conveniently ignoring the serviceable pre-Saddam constitution which should suffice           
Today Web-Blog ( cached ) See also: 1 
       This web-blog provides a good up-to-date account of events as they are unfolding in the occupation of Iraq.           
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Effect of sanctions on Iraq View comments     
1990 Article ( cached )
       Under the leadership of Saddam, Iraq had achieved one of the most modern infrastructures and highest standards of living in the Middle East, and this despite the effects of the war on Iran.           
April 1991 UN Resolution ( cached ) See also: 1 
       The original post-Gulf War U.N. Security Council resolution 687, makes a lots of demands on Iraq, but specifies that once Iraq complies with the weapons inspection regime, the economic sanctions 'shall have no further force or effect.'.           
May 1991 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       Daddy Bush states states 'At this juncture, my view is we don't want to lift these sanctions as long as Saddam Hussein is in power'. The same day, then-Secretary of State James Baker sends the same message - 'We are not interested in seeing a relaxation of sanctions as long as Saddam Hussein is in power'. Clinton continues with this same policy during his time as President.           
UNICEF report ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 
       UNICEF estimates the sanctions have caused 500,000 Iraqi children under 5 to die in the eight year period from 1991 to 1998.           
CNN article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       The UN estimates 1 million Iraqis, mostly children, had died under the sanctions in this period. The Iraqi health ministry claims 1.5 million people.           
1996 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 
       At the International Court On Crimes Against Humanity, US, British and UN officials are charged with 'causing the deaths of more than 1,500,000 people including 750,000 children under five, and injury to the entire population of Iraq by genocidal sanctions.', and having committed 'genocide as defined in the Convention against Genocide against the population of Iraq including genocide by starvation and sickness through use of sanctions as a weapon of mass destruction and violation of Article 54, Protection of Objects Indispensable to the Civilian Population, of Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Convention 1977.'. The US is charged further with extortion, obstruction of justice, co-ercion, corruption of UN functions and the restriction of press and media coverage on the issue.           
1997 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 
       Madeleine Albright, in her first major foreign policy address as Secretary of State, proclaims 'We do not agree with the nations who argue that if Iraq complies with its obligations concerning weapons of mass destruction, sanctions should be lifted'.           
1998 CNN article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       When asked on 60 minutes whether the price (500,000 children) was worth it, Madeline Albright replies - 'I think this is a very hard choice, but the price - we think the price is worth it.' The 500,000 deaths are supposedly 'justified' by the fact that the sanctions have stopped Iraq from building weapons of mass destruction. Yet now Bush is taking us to war because, he alleges, Iraq does in fact still have these weapons, indicating that the sanctions served no purpose except to kill an estimated 4,000 children a month.           
2000 UNICEF report ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 
       Iraq drops to 126th on the UNDP Human Development Index, despite having ranked 50th in 1990.           
Nov 2001 Guardian article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       Halliday (who started the oil-for-food programme in Iraq), and Von Sponeck (his successor) - both of whom resigned their long UN careers after calling the embargo "genocide" - write: "The most recent report of the UN secretary general, in October 2001, says that the US and UK governments' blocking of $4bn of humanitarian supplies is by far the greatest constraint on the implementation of the oil-for-food programme. The report says that, in contrast, the Iraqi government's distribution of humanitarian supplies is fully satisfactory ... The death of some 5-6,000 children a month is mostly due to contaminated water, lack of medicines and malnutrition. The US and UK governments' delayed clearance of equipment and materials is responsible for this tragedy, not Baghdad."           
Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       When the UN Secretary General refers to the US and UK governments' 'blocking', he is referring partly to US+British efforts to prevent 'kickbacks' from the program reaching the Iraqi leadership. It is estimated their efforts prevented $30-50 million reaching the Iraqi leadership, at a cost however of $2-3 billion to the humanitarian program - a dubious tradeoff.           
Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 
       Other blocking included the prevention such 'dual-use' items as medicines, heart and lung machines, water pumps and other agricultural supplies, safety and fire fighting equipment, wheel barrows, detergent, ambulances etc from being provided to Iraq.           
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Pre-emptive War View comments     
1848 E-Text ( cached ) See also: 1 
       Abraham Lincoln writes 'Allow the President to invade a neighboring nation, whenever he shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion ... and you allow him to make war at pleasure.'.           
Today US National Security Strategy ( cached ) See also: 1 
       The Bush Doctrine being used to justify war on Iraq - 'To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively.'           
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Reasons behind the war with Iraq View comments     
1982 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       US FBI chief William Webster meets with the Emir of Kuwait and plots the seizure of Iraqi oil fields and the slant-drilling with which Kuwait and western oil companies would steal $14 billion worth of Iraqi oil, and which provided one of the main incentives for Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.           
1983 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 6 
       It was recently revealed that a purpose of Rumsfeld's meeting with Saddam in '83 was to negotiate a deal for an oil pipeline to be built by the company Bechtel (now in line for post-war construction contracts) through Iraq. Despite much work and dirty-dealing by US officials, the plan would later by rejected by Saddam in '85.           
May 1990 Essay ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       The Soviet Union has collapsed, and the American people are clamoring for a peace dividend. A new bad guy is needed fast. In May 1990 (three months before the first Gulf War), a National Security Council white paper states that Iraq and Saddam Hussein are 'the optimum contenders to replace the Warsaw pact as the rationale for major military expenditures.'           
1997 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 
       PNAC formed, its members including Cheney, Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz and Bush's brother Jeb among others. The group lobbies the government to go to war with Iraq and remove Saddam, writing in 1998 in this letter that '"We should establish and maintain a strong US military presence in the region, and be prepared to use that force to protect our vital interests in the Gulf - and, if necessary, to help remove Saddam from power' and in this letter that the government 'strategy should aim, above all, at the removal of Saddam Husseins regime from power'.           
1998 Graph ( cached )
       The International Energy Annual reveals the oil reserves/production ratios for a number of countries, revealing that at current rates, the US, Canada (the US's main supplier of oil) and Britain's proven oil reserves will be exhausted within 5-7 years. In contrast, Iraq's will last the longest, 142 years, at current production rates, and Kuwait's second longest.           
2000 PNAC Report ( cached ) See also: 1 
       The PNAC Report of 2000 talks about using Saddam as an excuse for extending the US role in the gulf - 'the United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein.'           
May 2001 Guardian article ( cached )
       The US energy department frighten politicians with a study known as the Cheney report (after the former head of Halliburton oil services group, now US vice-president, who wrote it). He predicts that imported oil would need to rise from 10.4 million barrels a day at present to 16.7 million barrels a day by 2020.           
April 2001 Sunday Herald article ( cached ) See also: 1 
       A report entitled 'Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century' is submitted to Vice President Dick Cheney, advocating a policy of using military force against an enemy such as Iraq to secure US access to, and control of, Middle Eastern oil fields.

''Iraq remains a destabilising influence to ... the flow of oil to international markets from the Middle East. Saddam Hussein has also demonstrated a willingness to threaten to use the oil weapon and to use his own export programme to manipulate oil markets.'. The document also points out that 'the United States remains a prisoner of its energy dilemma', and that one of the 'consequences' of this is a 'need for military intervention'. It says the 'central dilemma' for the US administration is that 'the American people continue to demand plentiful and cheap energy without sacrifice or inconvenience'.
Aug 2002 CNN article ( cached ) See also: 1 
       Cheney launches the new initiative against Iraq, arguing that the danger Iraq would pose if it obtained nuclear weapons would be that it could 'manipulate the world's energy supplies because Iraq holds 10 percent of the world's oil reserves'.           
Oct 2002 Article ( cached )
       Energy companies start to position themselves for a role in the revival of Iraq's oil industry. British companies are concerned they may not get their share of the pie.           
Oct 2002 US Gov report ( cached )
       US Govt report shows Iraq has signed several multi-billion dollar deals with foreign oil companies mainly from China, France, and Russia. Deutsche Bank estimates $38 billion total on new fields ... having reportedly signed a flurry of deals in recent weeks and months with companies from Italy (Eni), Spain (Repsol YPF), Russia (Tatneft), France (TotalFinaElf), China, India, Turkey, and others. Spot who's missing :).           
Jan 2003 Guardian article ( cached )
       Guardian reports on international oil companies jostling for rights to post-war oil, and also provides a nice summary of the close ties between the Bush administration and oil companies           
BBC article ( cached )
       Among these companies is Halliburton, to which US vice-president Dick Cheney has deep ties.           
Mar 25, 2003 CNN article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
       Halliburton is one of two companies to receive the first contracts for rebuilding Iraq.           
May 2003 BBC article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 6 
       US and Britain present a resolution to the UN which gives the US and Britain control over how the profits from Iraqi oil sales should be spent, and gives the US and UK an open-ended mandate to stay in Iraq and run the country 'until an internationally recognized, representative government is established by the people of Iraq'. A modified draft is eventually accepted by the UN.           
Today AJC article ( cached ) See also: 1 
       Halliburton is reaping billions of dollars in contracts in Iraq.           
US Govt report ( cached ) See also: 1 2 
       Total petroleum demand in the US is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.7% each year through to 2025, with Petroleum imports required to meet this demand expected to almost double in that time from 23.29 to 41.23 (quadrillion Btu).           
Article ( cached )
       Another factor that shouldn't be forgotten is the defense industry's influence on the US government. Conservative estimates are that defense contractors have been the source of $72.5 million in contributions to federal candidates and parties from 1989 to present. 32 major appointees of the Bush Administration - including the deputy secretaries of defense and state, and the secretaries of the Navy and Air Force - are former executives, consultants or major shareholders of top military contractors. Further, 95 out of the 100 members of the US Senate received contributions from the defense sector.           
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Public Misperception View comments     
August 2002 CNN Article ( cached )
       A USA Today poll shows 86% of the American public as thinking Baghdad is giving support to terrorist groups planning to strike America, with more than half believing Saddam had a hand in 9/11.           
Jan 2003 Knight Ridder poll ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       Leading up to the war, polls indicate widespread misperception regarding Iraq - a meagre 17% of Americans realise that none of the Sept. 11 hijackers were Iraqi, and 41% believe Iraq already has nuclear weapons (again a claim which not even the Bush Administration has made).           
Yahoo article ( cached )
       Another poll taken around the same time finds a full 81% of Americans believing Iraq poses a threat to the US.           
Mar 18, 2003 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       A CNN poll taken just two days before the war shows just how successfull the US propaganda machine has been in getting the American public to back the war - a full 51% of Americans are polled as believing that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was responsible for September 11. Although the Bush Administration has tried hard (and failed) to establish links between Saddam and Al Qaeda, not even he has ever gone so far as to accuse Saddam of direct involvement in 9-11.           
June 2003 Philadelphia Inquirer article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       A third of the American public is polled as believing US forces to have found WMD in Iraq, with 22% actually believing Iraq to have used chemical or biological weapons in the war, despite no WMD having being either found or used.           
June 2003 Article ( cached )
       Another poll gives some insight as to why, as shown above, half of America believe Saddam Hussein to be responsible for the attacks - 7 in 10 Americans polled say the Bush administration implied that Iraq and its leader, Saddam Hussein, were involved in the Sept. 11 attacks.           
August 2003 Article ( cached )
       Polls show the American public believing the coalition fatalities in Iraq to be no higher than 50, at a time when the actual official figure lies at 295.           
September 2003 Washington Post article ( cached ) See also: 1 
       New polls repeat the picture shown back in June - 7 in 10 Americans continue to believe it to be 'likely or very likely Saddam Hussein was involved in Sept. 11'.           
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Resolution 1441 View comments     
Aug 1990 UN Resolution ( cached )
       UN Resolution 660 passed, calling on Iraq to 'withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990'.           
Nov 1990 UN Resolution ( cached )
       UN Resolution 678 passed, which 'Authorizes Member States co-operating with the Government of Kuwait, unless Iraq on or before 15 January 1991 fully implements, as set forth in paragraph 1 above, the foregoing resolutions, to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 (1990) and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area.'.

In other words, this authorizes the use of force to remove Iraq from Kuwait.
Nov 2002 LA Times article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 
       John Negroponte, U.S. Ambassador to the UN, urges support for Resolution 1441, arguing 'There's no 'automaticity' and this is a two-stage process, and in that regard we have met the principal concerns that have been expressed for the resolution ... Whatever violation there is, or is judged to exist, will be dealt with in the [Security] Council, and the Council will have an opportunity to consider the matter before any other action is taken.'           
Nov 2002 UN Resolution ( cached ) See also: 1 
       Resolution 1441 passed. It 'Recalls ... that the Council has repeatedly warned Iraq that it will face serious consequences as a result of its continued violations of its obligations' and also recalls 'that its resolution 678 (1990) authorized Member States to use all necessary means to uphold and implement its resolution 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990 and all relevant resolutions subsequent to Resolution 660 (1990) and to restore international peace and security in the area'.

In other words, it repeats a previously given warning and recalls some previous resolutions which authorized force to remove Iraq from Kuwait.
Mar 18, 2003 Article ( cached ) See also: 1 2 3 4 5 
       After it becomes obvious that the UN will not pass a resolution authorizing a war in Iraq, the US and Britain violate international law by launching the war anyway, justifying their actions with Resolution 1441.           
More on UN Charter See also: 1 
       Under the UN charter, military force is legally permitted only if it is sanctioned by the Security Council or in self-defense.           
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